Even tea-partying righties should be pretty shocked at this shameless, exploitative (and wildly inaccurate) manipulation of Americans’ post-9/11 paranoia as a marketing gimmick. And you thought 24 was off the air. Well here’s the video game version, all designed to scare you s—less – for cash. When the Homeland Security Department terrified the country 10 years ago by telling us to buy ducktape and sheetwrap, at least they had public safety goals, however confusedly, in mind. But this pseudodocumentarian ‘they’re-everywhere!-no-one-is-safe!’ crap is just to shill some video game. Bleh.
And Oliver North?! Good lord – the guy violated the appropriations clause, the Logan Act, and who knows how much other statute, and should have been in jail next to Frank Colson. Yet this guy is credible for the (apparently) largest entertainment franchise in the world now? Wow. H/t to Kotaku: “What does this say, then, about the market for a game like Call of Duty? Does Activision really believe its core market is so full of gun-crazy, right-wing types that it feels entirely comfortable employing Oliver North as someone to help sell the game?”
Activision’s Modern Warfare series has a well-known, morally dubious (yet best-selling)record of brutality-celebrating, militaristic, war-glorifying gaming, but invoking Oliver North’s pseudo-gravitas for right-wing street cred must be a new low. Is the first-person shooter genre now politicized too? So Sarah Palin’s ‘Real Americans’ blow away commies and terrorists with extreme prejudice, while you wimpy liberals play girlie games like Final Fantasy or something? The red state-blue state divide has come to your Xbox too. How nice; how healthy for democracy. Is it necessary to remind all those Tea Parties who adore the Constitution that North blatantly, repeatedly violated the appropriations clause of said ‘sacred,’ ‘holy’ end-all-be-all document?
At a time when the President is asserting an unprecedented right to kill overseas Americans without Constitutional protections, we really don’t need yet another wildly overhyped, quick-cut, paranoia-inducing threat assessment. Somewhere neocons are smiling, because I guess we all need our own drone now, right? But this stuff is pummeling our democracy and leading to all sorts behavior, like warrantless wiretaps or the Patriot Act, that we’d never tolerate otherwise and about which we will one day be ashamed.
The irony too is how baldly this ‘documentary’ contradicts the actual social science work on war – you know, from people who actually know what the hell they’re talking about, like Pinker, Goldstein, the democratic peace, nuclear peace, Long Peace, or security community theorists. War seems to be becoming less frequent, less cost-beneficial, more hemmed-in with rules and norms, and less general (i.e., not involving all the system’s big players anymore). If there’s one thing just about everybody in IR today seems to agree on, it’s that the US spends way, way more money on defense than it needs to. But I guess there’s no money in a game entitled ‘Threatlessness,‘ so let’s amp up the fear-factor by rolling out the Gordon Liddy of the Reagan administration to freak out the consumer.
More generally, I find it pretty worrisome just how brutal post-9/11 American geopolitical entertainment has become. I don’t mean violent; many movies and games are violent, even graphically so. Rather I am thinking of the unabashed relish for pro-American killing, the zealous bloodlust that’s morally fig-leafed by American patriotism so as to be defensible to the viewer. The same people who cheered for Rick Perry’s talibanic enthusiasm for the death penalty and waterboarding are thrilled to see the gleeful embrace of pro-American torture, mass-killings, and executions in even mainstream, hugely popular franchises like Modern Warfare, 24, or Transformers.
24 constantly found a way to work in torture by the good guys, as if to say that real men, genuinely committed to America, don’t have time for rules and due process. Lawyers are for sissies and liberals; patriots will gladly go over to Cheney’s ‘dark side’ beat the hell out of anyone, violate any law, to defend America. Modern Warfare 2 became globally notorious by requiring the gamer to participate in a mass atrocity (machine-gunning hundreds of civilians). In Battle: Los Angeles, the American hero performed a battlefield vivisection on wounded opponent. In Modern Warfare 3, the protagonists shoot a defenseless, surrendered enemy in the face even after he has cooperated in giving information. Homefront portrays the execution of parents in front of their screaming child, has the gamer hide under the bodies of a mass grave, and later encourages you not to waste ammunition on enemies on fire after an airstrike. Transformers 3 includes four battlefield executions (because it’s a movie for kids you know) and gives the antagonist the startling, downright revelatory post-9/11 line: ‘We will kill them all in the name of freedom.’ Wow – why not just give Michael Bay a job at some neocon think-tank? EA’s Battlefield 3, in the same year as the US is debating striking Iran, spun up a story of Iranian-sponsored MWD use in Western cities which provokes a US invasion of Iran. Good lord; Bill Kristol himself could have written that script. And I have no doubt after this paranoid video above that Black Ops 2 will include some gratuitously vicious sequence packaged as ‘defending’ America.
The basic trick in all these the-defense-of-America-requires-cruelty narratives is to structure the story with such extreme bad guys and circumstances that the viewer can morally excuse the American hero for egregious violations of the law or rules of engagement that would otherwise get the cop/soldier/good guy rightfully thrown in jail as a dangerous sociopath. 24’s constant portrayals of torture justified by the wildly unrealistic ticking time-bomb scenario is the most obvious example. So long as Jack Bauer can say he’s trying to save a million people in LA, he’s allowed to do anything – torture, maim, execute civilians, violate due process, steal passwords, etc.
This stuff is tea party nirvana – strong, a—kicking men stand-up for America while liberal sissies at the ACLU worry about lawyers for terrorists. Conveniently the hero’s brutality is shielded/morally excused by some lame narrative fig-leaf about MWDs or alien invasions. But the real point is to show vengeful, post-9/11 killing on behalf of America without feeling guilty about it. This is why it’s terrifying.
So if you wonder why stories about American misbehavior in Afghanistan, like trophy taking or killing squads, get so little attention, consider just how coopted the post-9/11 geopolitical entertainment industry is, constantly presenting America’s opponents as unworthy of any rights, justifiably tortured, and fit to be wiped out with extreme prejudice at all time. Conversely, if you wonder why Apocalypse Now or Platoon are vastly more gripping and engaging, while you can’t even remember the story of last summer Transformers, it’s because in the real world, the moral certainty imparted by the ticking bomb scenario almost never happens. Jack Bauer’s 100% certainty in the bomb threat, which justifies his tearing out some Muslim’s fingernails or something, is narrative figment. Endless studies of war and intelligence gathering have told us just how much confusion and uncertainty there is. This is the whole reason we have the rules of engagement.
This why Jack Bauer would be in prison for life in the real world, no matter how much the right thinks he should be a role model for the GWoT CT. Real world bad guys – unlike in the black-and-white, ‘moral clarity,’ tea-party/neo-con dreamworld of Michael Bay, John Milius, Keifer Sutherland, Fox News, and even Peter Jackson – usually aren’t all wholly unredeemable villains. Even after the ’good war,’ de-nazification didn’t lead to mass executions of the Wehrmacht. Someday we’re going to look back on this post-9/11 bloody-minded entertainment with cringe-inducing shame, in the same way we think about Rambo or Red Dawn today.
I don’t want to sound like some boring old dude who doesn’t get this stuff. I like gaming. I waste lots of time on it. I enjoy action movies and FPS’s like Halo; I’ve played Modern Warfare and Homefront. What unnerves isn’t the thrill of the violence. (That is also morally dubious, of course, but given that it underlines the viewing rush of every action movie ever made, hold that for a moment.) What I find really noticeable and increasingly disturbing is the post-9/11 gleeful depiction of carnage. 9/11 ‘took the gloves off’ and allowed so many directors – Bay, Milius, Sutherland, the Activision guys – to unleash their reptilian id, all their inner xenophobia, cruelty, militarism, war-glorifying machismo, and sheer bloody-mindedness. And the Tea-Party loves them for it.
Every time I see one of these movies in Korea (Battleship and Act of Valor just arrived), or whenever my students tell me how great some new shooter game is, I always wonder what foreigners must think of us and this endless diet of jingoistic movie and gaming violence we produce. One movie after another game of over-the-top violence, huge CGI, American flags waving, uniforms and saluting, troopers barking canned, macho dialogue like ‘Marines never give up,’ killing, and then more killing, flirtation with torture. I understand why my students tell me America is an empire; we sure entertain ourselves as if we are, and foreigners can see this stuff. I know the Tea Party couldn’t care less what foreigners think of us – that’s they whole point, right? And I know that the Pentagon approves Hollywood scripts before it lends its hardware, but I can’t imagine that even the brass really wants only this kind of jingoistic pap. Who wouldn’t exchange one Apocalypse Now for all these awful, cruel, rah-rah post-9/11 movies and games? But they gross huge amounts, of course; as will Black Ops 2, I have no doubt. And what self-respecting tea-partier wouldn’t want to help Oliver North’s rehabilitation to credibility?
A good book for readers (or Prof. Kelly) on this is “Back to Our Future: How the 80s Explains The World We Live in Now” by David Sirota (2007). Sirota analyzes the militaristic movies and games of the 80s and explains them as reflecting the 50s nostalgia of the Reagan administration and their antagonism toward the perceived moral failures of the 60s. These 80s cartoon-carnage media might be the origins of much of the present jingoist violence explored in this posting.
A more psychological analysis might ask whether this present triumphalism in films and video games is simply a gut-level impulse to reach out and smack at your enemies when feeling weakened or threatened. These films do seem to come at a time of perceived economic malaise.
Interestingly, such hurray-for-US films don’t apparently faze Koreans, although they must at some level influence youngsters. The locals here seem much more concerned by one mad dairy cow in California.
Ken, you always write up such good stuff in my comments. I think you’ve recommended this book before, right? Maybe I can track it down this summer when I am home.
But don’t you worry when you’re sitting in the movie theater watching explosions and snapping flags and macho Americans blowing away the bad guys, what the Koreans sitting next to you are thinking about us? Don’t you wonder when you look around and see them watching all this crap, that they think we’re just bonkers, some militant, angry semi-empire? I remember when I saw Transformers 3, there was some woman sitting next to, presumably pushed into seeing it for ‘date-night,’ and she gasped on the several occasions of the executions. She seemed genuinely shocked at how nasty it was. We’ve become harsher, and they can see it. It makes me ashamed sometimes that this is what they see of us so much.
I’m a Canadian, Robert, so I don’t feel a national sense of shame, though I suppose I feel a sort of collective feeling of responsibility for being part of a broader North American culture which consumes and pays for this violence, even if Canadians aren’t, strictly speaking, identified with it. We certainly go home and watch the movies and play the video games, after tut-tutting those vulgar Americans in public in the cafe.
It’s an interesting question, what Koreans think of such triumphalist media. I have absolutely no stomach for violent movies– by my standards Scarface was an extremely graphic film– and so I can’t say much from experience about this recent theater fare. Korean films can also be violent, albeit usually with fists and gangs rather than tanks, and so I wonder if it’s possible to separate the violent aspect from the political chauvanism. Could we say that the movies are so cartoonish as to present a fantasy America which the audience implicitly assumes isn’t the real one, or am I assuming too much? Again, I’m throwing out ideas, but from my experience Koreans are more upset from what they feel are wrong or insulting depictions of Koreans in western media than from TV torture.
These matters may miss the real point, though, that people (in the US and abroad) are becoming inured to this sort of depiction of laws and principles flagrantly ignored as antiquated and effeminate. Just as I cringed years ago when my students wrote papers assuming that the Da Vinci Code depicted actual history, it may be so that our students will write papers assuming that American soldiers and officers torture as a normal course of duty, or that habeus corpus is simply intended as a piece of window dressing, much like how communist states have beautiful constitutions completely contrary to actual practice.
I was not just thinking of Koreans though. Just foreigners generally. I remember when I lived in Europe, I had people tell me that we produced an for too much violent pop culture.
And your comments about normalization of torture and right violation is correct IMO: http://asiansecurityblog.wordpress.com/2010/05/11/the-normalization-of-torture-and-oh-yeah-obama-is-probably-the-anti-christ/
Great post Robert. I understand Kim Jong Il got the idea for Songun from his collection of Hollywood DVDs.
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I stopped reading at “Social scientists”, HA! A Marxist discipline not to be taken seriously by anyone who critically thinks. I do agree about the military industrial media complex propagandising US children and young adults in a particularly devious manner however your bullshit analysis is equally appalling. There is no true left wing in the United States anymore. There are only varying shades of the extreme right. It’s been that way for a long time. You can lump progressives and social “scientists” into that category as well.
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